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(德海精工)五金沖壓件的常見故障分析
時間:2016/1/16 16:10:07  瀏覽:次

沖(chong)壓(ya)是(shi)四大工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)藝之(zhi)首,其重(zhong)要性可(ke)想而知(zhi)。沖(chong)壓(ya)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)廠(chang)制(zhi)成品的(de)(de)(de)(de)質(zhi)量會給整(zheng)車(che)外觀和性能打下可(ke)靠的(de)(de)(de)(de)基礎,因此(ci),沖(chong)壓(ya)制(zhi)件的(de)(de)(de)(de)質(zhi)量保證一(yi)直是(shi)汽(qi)車(che)制(zhi)造業企業非常(chang)重(zhong)視的(de)(de)(de)(de)問(wen)(wen)題。  根據我(wo)公司沖(chong)壓(ya)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)廠(chang)進(jin)行質(zhi)量管理的(de)(de)(de)(de)實踐經驗,小編總結了五金沖(chong)壓(ya)件產品制(zhi)作過程中的(de)(de)(de)(de)常(chang)見問(wen)(wen)題原因及對(dui)策(ce),希望(wang)能夠對(dui)沖(chong)壓(ya)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)廠(chang)同行制(zhi)件質(zhi)量的(de)(de)(de)(de)提高(gao)提供一(yi)些有益的(de)(de)(de)(de)參(can)考。  

 

一、五(wu)金沖(chong)壓件為什么會出現翻料扭曲?          

沖(chong)(chong)(chong)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)件(jian)在(zai)級(ji)進模(mo)中,通過(guo)沖(chong)(chong)(chong)切沖(chong)(chong)(chong)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)件(jian)周(zhou)邊余料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)的(de)(de)(de)方法,來形(xing)成沖(chong)(chong)(chong)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)外形(xing)。沖(chong)(chong)(chong)件(jian)產生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)翻料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)、扭(niu)曲的(de)(de)(de)主(zhu)要(yao)(yao)原(yuan)(yuan)因為(wei)沖(chong)(chong)(chong)裁(cai)(cai)力(li)(li)的(de)(de)(de)影響(xiang)。沖(chong)(chong)(chong)裁(cai)(cai)時(shi),由于(yu)沖(chong)(chong)(chong)裁(cai)(cai)間(jian)隙的(de)(de)(de)存在(zai),材(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)在(zai)凹(ao)模(mo)的(de)(de)(de)一側(ce)(ce)受(shou)拉伸(材(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)向(xiang)上翹曲),靠凸模(mo)側(ce)(ce)受(shou)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)縮。當用卸(xie)(xie)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)板(ban)時(shi),利用卸(xie)(xie)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)板(ban)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)緊(jin)材(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao),防止凹(ao)模(mo)側(ce)(ce)的(de)(de)(de)材(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)向(xiang)上翹曲,此(ci)時(shi),材(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)的(de)(de)(de)受(shou)力(li)(li)狀(zhuang)況發生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)相應的(de)(de)(de)改變(bian)。隨卸(xie)(xie)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)板(ban)對其壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)力(li)(li)的(de)(de)(de)增加,靠凸模(mo)側(ce)(ce)之材(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)受(shou)拉伸(壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)縮力(li)(li)趨于(yu)減小),而(er)凹(ao)模(mo)面上材(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)受(shou)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)縮(拉伸力(li)(li)趨于(yu)減小)。沖(chong)(chong)(chong)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)翻轉(zhuan)即由于(yu)凹(ao)模(mo)面上的(de)(de)(de)材(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)受(shou)拉伸而(er)致(zhi)(zhi)。所以(yi)沖(chong)(chong)(chong)裁(cai)(cai)時(shi),壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)住(zhu)且壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)緊(jin)材(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)是防止沖(chong)(chong)(chong)件(jian)產生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)翻料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)、扭(niu)曲的(de)(de)(de)重點。折(zhe)彎(wan)(wan)(wan)時(shi)沖(chong)(chong)(chong)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)件(jian)產生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)翻料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)、扭(niu)曲的(de)(de)(de)原(yuan)(yuan)因及對策。 1沖(chong)(chong)(chong)裁(cai)(cai)時(shi)產生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)的(de)(de)(de)沖(chong)(chong)(chong)件(jian)毛邊所致(zhi)(zhi)。需(xu)研修(xiu)沖(chong)(chong)(chong)切刃(ren)口,并注意檢查沖(chong)(chong)(chong)裁(cai)(cai)間(jian)隙是否合理。 2沖(chong)(chong)(chong)裁(cai)(cai)時(shi)已產生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)沖(chong)(chong)(chong)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)翻料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)、扭(niu)曲變(bian)形(xing),導致(zhi)(zhi)折(zhe)彎(wan)(wan)(wan)后成形(xing)不良,需(xu)從沖(chong)(chong)(chong)裁(cai)(cai)下(xia)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)工位著(zhu)手解決(jue)。 3折(zhe)彎(wan)(wan)(wan)時(shi)沖(chong)(chong)(chong)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)件(jian)失穩所致(zhi)(zhi)。主(zhu)要(yao)(yao)針對U形(xing)及V形(xing)折(zhe)彎(wan)(wan)(wan)。此(ci)問(wen)題(ti)的(de)(de)(de)處理,對沖(chong)(chong)(chong)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)件(jian)進行(xing)折(zhe)彎(wan)(wan)(wan)前(qian)的(de)(de)(de)導位、折(zhe)彎(wan)(wan)(wan)過(guo)程中的(de)(de)(de)導位,以(yi)及折(zhe)彎(wan)(wan)(wan)過(guo)程中壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)住(zhu)材(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)防止沖(chong)(chong)(chong)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)件(jian)在(zai)折(zhe)彎(wan)(wan)(wan)時(shi)產生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)滑移(yi)是解決(jue)問(wen)題(ti)的(de)(de)(de)重點。

 

二、五金沖壓件為什么會引起撕裂?      

五金沖(chong)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)件(jian)常見的(de)(de)撕(si)(si)裂(lie)(lie)、歪斜形(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)式(shi) 中間護面支架沖(chong)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)工(gong)藝(yi)(yi)(yi)流程(cheng)為(wei)(wei):落料(liao)(liao)沖(chong)孔--沖(chong)孔切(qie)(qie)口--翻(fan)邊(bian)成(cheng)形(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)--切(qie)(qie)口--翻(fan)邊(bian)。中間護面支架成(cheng)形(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)過程(cheng)中發(fa)(fa)生撕(si)(si)裂(lie)(lie)、歪斜的(de)(de)形(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)式(shi)多種多樣,其撕(si)(si)裂(lie)(lie)部(bu)(bu)位主(zhu)要(yao)(yao)(yao)分布在(zai)(zai)制(zhi)件(jian)孔型處(chu)(chu)(chu),側壁拐(guai)角處(chu)(chu)(chu)R圓弧與壁頸交界處(chu)(chu)(chu)等,因(yin)沖(chong)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)成(cheng)形(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)與生產工(gong)藝(yi)(yi)(yi)條件(jian)的(de)(de)差異,各(ge)斷裂(lie)(lie)部(bu)(bu)位所占的(de)(de)比例不同。撕(si)(si)裂(lie)(lie)可以是(shi)(shi)一(yi)次性成(cheng)形(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)撕(si)(si)裂(lie)(lie),也可以是(shi)(shi)由于(yu)疲勞裂(lie)(lie)紋即隱形(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)裂(lie)(lie)紋發(fa)(fa)展引(yin)起的(de)(de)撕(si)(si)裂(lie)(lie)。    原因(yin)分析(xi), 根據現(xian)(xian)場(chang)的(de)(de)實(shi)際(ji)情況(kuang),通(tong)過檢查制(zhi)件(jian)撕(si)(si)裂(lie)(lie)部(bu)(bu)位、斷口形(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)態及(ji)擠傷程(cheng)度,認為(wei)(wei)引(yin)起制(zhi)件(jian)撕(si)(si)裂(lie)(lie)、歪斜行(xing)(xing)為(wei)(wei)主(zhu)要(yao)(yao)(yao)體(ti)現(xian)(xian)在(zai)(zai)翻(fan)邊(bian)成(cheng)形(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)工(gong)序(xu),引(yin)起此工(gong)序(xu)現(xian)(xian)象發(fa)(fa)生的(de)(de)原因(yin)如下:    1. 成(cheng)形(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)工(gong)藝(yi)(yi)(yi)參數執行(xing)(xing)不到位 ,在(zai)(zai)制(zhi)件(jian)成(cheng)形(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)過程(cheng)中,工(gong)藝(yi)(yi)(yi)要(yao)(yao)(yao)求凹模(mo)(mo)、壓(ya)(ya)(ya)料(liao)(liao)芯(xin)以及(ji)兩者的(de)(de)制(zhi)件(jian)必須(xu)緊密貼合在(zai)(zai)一(yi)起,在(zai)(zai)機(ji)床滑(hua)塊下滑(hua)時(shi)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)迫(po)板料(liao)(liao)塑性變形(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)而(er)實(shi)現(xian)(xian)成(cheng)形(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。但(dan)現(xian)(xian)在(zai)(zai)由于(yu)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)制(zhi)出的(de)(de)制(zhi)件(jian)存(cun)在(zai)(zai)質(zhi)量(liang)不穩(wen)定等缺點,就說明(ming)機(ji)床壓(ya)(ya)(ya)力在(zai)(zai)生產過程(cheng)中處(chu)(chu)(chu)于(yu)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)力跳動不均衡狀態。究其原因(yin),主(zhu)要(yao)(yao)(yao)是(shi)(shi)加工(gong)技術人(ren)員未按工(gong)藝(yi)(yi)(yi)指定要(yao)(yao)(yao)求在(zai)(zai)這一(yi)階段及(ji)時(shi)對機(ji)床壓(ya)(ya)(ya)力進行(xing)(xing)調整(zheng),或者是(shi)(shi)在(zai)(zai)每個班次的(de)(de)交接時(shi),沒(mei)有相(xiang)(xiang)互溝通(tong)機(ji)床壓(ya)(ya)(ya)力穩(wen)定性信息,而(er)導(dao)(dao)致(zhi)制(zhi)件(jian)質(zhi)量(liang)不穩(wen)定。    2.翻(fan)邊(bian)成(cheng)形(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)模(mo)(mo)具(ju)設(she)(she)計(ji)缺陷 ,該模(mo)(mo)具(ju)為(wei)(wei)一(yi)模(mo)(mo)雙(shuang)腔左(zuo)/右件(jian)公用,由于(yu)本工(gong)序(xu)內容除翻(fan)邊(bian)外,還兼備形(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)狀成(cheng)形(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)內容,加之制(zhi)件(jian)特(te)(te)殊復雜,彎曲面狹小(xiao),成(cheng)形(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)要(yao)(yao)(yao)求凹模(mo)(mo)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)料(liao)(liao)芯(xin)與成(cheng)形(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)面相(xiang)(xiang)符等,導(dao)(dao)致(zhi)模(mo)(mo)具(ju)結構條件(jian)成(cheng)形(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)行(xing)(xing)程(cheng)大,壓(ya)(ya)(ya)料(liao)(liao)面積(ji)小(xiao)。設(she)(she)計(ji)人(ren)員在(zai)(zai)最初(chu)模(mo)(mo)具(ju)設(she)(she)計(ji)時(shi),僅(jin)考慮到了壓(ya)(ya)(ya)料(liao)(liao)面小(xiao)這一(yi)特(te)(te)征,卻忽視了壓(ya)(ya)(ya)料(liao)(liao)芯(xin)成(cheng)形(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)導(dao)(dao)滑(hua)行(xing)(xing)程(cheng)。  

 

三(san)、五金沖壓件表(biao)面質量為(wei)什么(me)會不良?      

造成沖壓件(jian)產(chan)品(pin)表(biao)(biao)面(mian)質(zhi)量(liang)問(wen)題的(de)(de)原因(yin)很多,卷(juan)料(liao)、板(ban)料(liao)、模具的(de)(de)表(biao)(biao)面(mian)質(zhi)量(liang)會影(ying)響最終沖壓制件(jian)的(de)(de)品(pin)質(zhi),沖壓過程中的(de)(de)操作以(yi)及工位器具的(de)(de)裝夾取卸(xie)等(deng)也有可能損(sun)傷制件(jian)表(biao)(biao)面(mian)質(zhi)量(liang),因(yin)此,在(zai)整個制造過程的(de)(de)每個環節中都應充分考慮細節,盡量(liang)避免出現(xian)質(zhi)量(liang)問(wen)題,影(ying)響最終的(de)(de)產(chan)品(pin)外觀。 1、卷(juan)料(liao)  卷(juan)料(liao)常(chang)見的(de)(de)不(bu)良現(xian)象(xiang)主(zhu)要有以(yi)下(xia)方面(mian): (1)鋼板(ban)表(biao)(biao)面(mian)或(huo)(huo)者(zhe)內(nei)部有異(yi)物(wu)(wu)(wu)混入; (2)異(yi)物(wu)(wu)(wu)剝落(luo),卷(juan)料(liao)呈傷疤一樣的(de)(de)狀態; 卷(juan)料(liao)不(bu)良  (3)卷(juan)料(liao)邊(bian)(bian)角破損(sun);  (4)邊(bian)(bian)角(20~30mm)由于應力(li)不(bu)均勻而發生(sheng)變形或(huo)(huo)者(zhe)壓皺; (5)刮(gua)痕(輥(gun)子表(biao)(biao)面(mian)或(huo)(huo)者(zhe)異(yi)物(wu)(wu)(wu)質(zhi)引(yin)起(qi)(qi)); (6)輥(gun)子滑動引(yin)起(qi)(qi); (7)邊(bian)(bian)緣不(bu)規則破損(sun);  (8)異(yi)物(wu)(wu)(wu)進入后(hou)在(zai)卷(juan)料(liao)背面(mian)壓出鼓包(異(yi)物(wu)(wu)(wu)掉下(xia)則消失(shi)); (9)輥(gun)子痕跡(異(yi)物(wu)(wu)(wu)附著在(zai)輥(gun)子上(shang)引(yin)起(qi)(qi)); (10)超出規則以(yi)外的(de)(de)材質(zhi)不(bu)良;  (11)異(yi)物(wu)(wu)(wu)引(yin)起(qi)(qi)表(biao)(biao)面(mian)深度產(chan)生(sheng)明顯的(de)(de)溝痕。  根據實踐(jian)經驗發現(xian),以(yi)上(shang)內(nei)容中,5、8、9項是頻(pin)率出現(xian)最多的(de)(de)制件(jian)不(bu)良表(biao)(biao)現(xian)或(huo)(huo)原因(yin)。

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