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五金沖壓件的常見故障分析
時間:2016/8/19 16:11:34  瀏覽:次

沖(chong)(chong)壓(ya)是四大工(gong)藝之首,其(qi)重(zhong)要(yao)性(xing)可(ke)想而知。沖(chong)(chong)壓(ya)工(gong)廠制(zhi)成品的質(zhi)量(liang)會給(gei)整車外觀和性(xing)能(neng)打下(xia)可(ke)靠的基礎(chu),因此,沖(chong)(chong)壓(ya)制(zhi)件(jian)的質(zhi)量(liang)保證一直是汽車制(zhi)造業(ye)企業(ye)非常重(zhong)視的問題(ti)(ti)。  根據我(wo)公司沖(chong)(chong)壓(ya)工(gong)廠進行質(zhi)量(liang)管(guan)理(li)的實踐經驗,小編總(zong)結了五金沖(chong)(chong)壓(ya)件(jian)產品制(zhi)作過程中的常見(jian)問題(ti)(ti)原因及對策,希望能(neng)夠(gou)對沖(chong)(chong)壓(ya)工(gong)廠同行制(zhi)件(jian)質(zhi)量(liang)的提高提供一些有益(yi)的參考。


 一、五金沖壓件(jian)為什(shen)么會出現翻料扭(niu)曲? ;       


  五金沖(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)壓(ya)(ya)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)在級進(jin)模(mo)(mo)中,通過沖(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)切(qie)沖(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)壓(ya)(ya)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)周(zhou)邊(bian)余料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)方(fang)法,來形成沖(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)外形。沖(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)產(chan)(chan)生(sheng)翻(fan)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)、扭曲(qu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)主要(yao)原因為沖(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)裁力的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)影響。沖(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)裁時(shi),由于(yu)沖(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)裁間(jian)隙的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)存(cun)在,材(cai)(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)在凹(ao)(ao)模(mo)(mo)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)一側受(shou)(shou)(shou)拉(la)(la)伸(shen)(shen)(材(cai)(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)向(xiang)上(shang)(shang)(shang)翹(qiao)曲(qu)),靠(kao)凸模(mo)(mo)側受(shou)(shou)(shou)壓(ya)(ya)縮(suo)。當用卸(xie)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)板(ban)時(shi),利用卸(xie)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)板(ban)壓(ya)(ya)緊(jin)材(cai)(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao),防(fang)止(zhi)凹(ao)(ao)模(mo)(mo)側的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)材(cai)(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)向(xiang)上(shang)(shang)(shang)翹(qiao)曲(qu),此時(shi),材(cai)(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)受(shou)(shou)(shou)力狀況(kuang)發生(sheng)相應的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)改變(bian)。隨(sui)卸(xie)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)板(ban)對其壓(ya)(ya)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)力的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)增加,靠(kao)凸模(mo)(mo)側之材(cai)(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)受(shou)(shou)(shou)拉(la)(la)伸(shen)(shen)(壓(ya)(ya)縮(suo)力趨于(yu)減小),而凹(ao)(ao)模(mo)(mo)面(mian)上(shang)(shang)(shang)材(cai)(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)受(shou)(shou)(shou)壓(ya)(ya)縮(suo)(拉(la)(la)伸(shen)(shen)力趨于(yu)減小)。沖(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)壓(ya)(ya)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)翻(fan)轉即由于(yu)凹(ao)(ao)模(mo)(mo)面(mian)上(shang)(shang)(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)材(cai)(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)受(shou)(shou)(shou)拉(la)(la)伸(shen)(shen)而致(zhi)。所(suo)以沖(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)裁時(shi),壓(ya)(ya)住(zhu)且壓(ya)(ya)緊(jin)材(cai)(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)是(shi)防(fang)止(zhi)沖(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)產(chan)(chan)生(sheng)翻(fan)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)、扭曲(qu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)點。折(zhe)(zhe)(zhe)(zhe)彎(wan)(wan)時(shi)沖(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)壓(ya)(ya)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)產(chan)(chan)生(sheng)翻(fan)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)、扭曲(qu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)原因及對策。 1沖(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)裁時(shi)產(chan)(chan)生(sheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)沖(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)毛邊(bian)所(suo)致(zhi)。需(xu)研修沖(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)切(qie)刃口(kou),并注意檢查沖(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)裁間(jian)隙是(shi)否合理(li)。 2沖(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)裁時(shi)已產(chan)(chan)生(sheng)沖(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)翻(fan)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)、扭曲(qu)變(bian)形,導(dao)致(zhi)折(zhe)(zhe)(zhe)(zhe)彎(wan)(wan)后成形不良,需(xu)從沖(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)裁下(xia)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)工位著(zhu)手解決(jue)。 3折(zhe)(zhe)(zhe)(zhe)彎(wan)(wan)時(shi)沖(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)壓(ya)(ya)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)失穩所(suo)致(zhi)。主要(yao)針對U形及V形折(zhe)(zhe)(zhe)(zhe)彎(wan)(wan)。此問(wen)題(ti)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)處理(li),對沖(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)壓(ya)(ya)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)進(jin)行(xing)折(zhe)(zhe)(zhe)(zhe)彎(wan)(wan)前的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)導(dao)位、折(zhe)(zhe)(zhe)(zhe)彎(wan)(wan)過程(cheng)中的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)導(dao)位,以及折(zhe)(zhe)(zhe)(zhe)彎(wan)(wan)過程(cheng)中壓(ya)(ya)住(zhu)材(cai)(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)(liao)防(fang)止(zhi)沖(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)(chong)壓(ya)(ya)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)在折(zhe)(zhe)(zhe)(zhe)彎(wan)(wan)時(shi)產(chan)(chan)生(sheng)滑移是(shi)解決(jue)問(wen)題(ti)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)點。


二、五金(jin)沖壓件為什(shen)么(me)會引(yin)起撕裂?   ; 


 五金(jin)沖(chong)壓(ya)件(jian)常見的(de)(de)撕(si)(si)裂(lie)(lie)、歪斜(xie)形(xing)式 中間護面(mian)(mian)支架(jia)沖(chong)壓(ya)工(gong)藝(yi)流程為:落料沖(chong)孔(kong)--沖(chong)孔(kong)切口--翻邊(bian)成形(xing)--切口--翻邊(bian)。中間護面(mian)(mian)支架(jia)成形(xing)過程中發生撕(si)(si)裂(lie)(lie)、歪斜(xie)的(de)(de)形(xing)式多種多樣,其撕(si)(si)裂(lie)(lie)部(bu)位主(zhu)要分布在制件(jian)孔(kong)型處,側壁(bi)拐角處R圓弧與(yu)壁(bi)頸交(jiao)界處等,因沖(chong)壓(ya)成形(xing)與(yu)生產工(gong)藝(yi)條(tiao)件(jian)的(de)(de)差(cha)異,各(ge)斷裂(lie)(lie)部(bu)位所占的(de)(de)比例(li)不同。撕(si)(si)裂(lie)(lie)可(ke)以是一(yi)次性成形(xing)撕(si)(si)裂(lie)(lie),也可(ke)以是由于疲勞裂(lie)(lie)紋即隱形(xing)裂(lie)(lie)紋發展(zhan)引(yin)起的(de)(de)撕(si)(si)裂(lie)(lie)。    原(yuan)因分析, 根據現場的(de)(de)實際情況,通過檢查制件(jian)撕(si)(si)裂(lie)(lie)部(bu)位、斷口形(xing)態及擠(ji)傷程度,認為引(yin)起制件(jian)撕(si)(si)裂(lie)(lie)、歪斜(xie)行為主(zhu)要體現在翻邊(bian)成形(xing)工(gong)序(xu),引(yin)起此工(gong)序(xu)現象發生的(de)(de)原(yuan)因如下:    


成(cheng)形(xing)工(gong)藝參數執行不到位(wei) ,在(zai)(zai)(zai)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)件成(cheng)形(xing)過程中,工(gong)藝要(yao)求凹(ao)模、壓(ya)(ya)料(liao)芯以及(ji)兩者的制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)件必須緊密貼合在(zai)(zai)(zai)一起,在(zai)(zai)(zai)機床滑(hua)塊(kuai)下滑(hua)時壓(ya)(ya)迫板料(liao)塑性(xing)變(bian)形(xing)而實現成(cheng)形(xing)。但(dan)現在(zai)(zai)(zai)由于壓(ya)(ya)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)出的制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)件存在(zai)(zai)(zai)質量不穩定等(deng)缺點,就說明機床壓(ya)(ya)力(li)在(zai)(zai)(zai)生(sheng)產


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