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五金沖壓件的常見故障分析
時間:2016/8/19 16:27:47  瀏覽:次

沖壓是四(si)大工藝之首(shou),其重要性可(ke)想(xiang)而知(zhi)。沖壓工廠(chang)制(zhi)成品的(de)(de)(de)質(zhi)量會給整車(che)外(wai)觀和性能(neng)打下可(ke)靠的(de)(de)(de)基礎,因(yin)此(ci),沖壓制(zhi)件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)質(zhi)量保證一(yi)直是汽車(che)制(zhi)造業(ye)企業(ye)非常(chang)重視的(de)(de)(de)問(wen)題(ti)。  根據我公司沖壓工廠(chang)進行質(zhi)量管理(li)的(de)(de)(de)實(shi)踐經驗(yan),小編總結了五金(jin)沖壓件(jian)(jian)產品制(zhi)作過程中的(de)(de)(de)常(chang)見問(wen)題(ti)原因(yin)及(ji)對策,希望能(neng)夠對沖壓工廠(chang)同(tong)行制(zhi)件(jian)(jian)質(zhi)量的(de)(de)(de)提(ti)高提(ti)供(gong)一(yi)些有(you)益的(de)(de)(de)參考。


 一、五(wu)金沖壓件為什(shen)么會出現(xian)翻料扭(niu)曲(qu)?  

  五金沖(chong)(chong)(chong)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)件(jian)在級進模(mo)(mo)中(zhong),通過沖(chong)(chong)(chong)切沖(chong)(chong)(chong)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)件(jian)周邊余料(liao)(liao)(liao)的(de)(de)(de)方法,來形(xing)成沖(chong)(chong)(chong)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)外形(xing)。沖(chong)(chong)(chong)件(jian)產(chan)生(sheng)(sheng)翻(fan)(fan)料(liao)(liao)(liao)、扭曲(qu)的(de)(de)(de)主要原因(yin)為沖(chong)(chong)(chong)裁(cai)(cai)力(li)(li)的(de)(de)(de)影響。沖(chong)(chong)(chong)裁(cai)(cai)時(shi),由于沖(chong)(chong)(chong)裁(cai)(cai)間(jian)隙的(de)(de)(de)存在,材(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)在凹(ao)模(mo)(mo)的(de)(de)(de)一側(ce)受(shou)(shou)拉(la)伸(shen)(材(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)向(xiang)上(shang)翹曲(qu)),靠凸模(mo)(mo)側(ce)受(shou)(shou)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)縮(suo)。當(dang)用卸料(liao)(liao)(liao)板(ban)時(shi),利用卸料(liao)(liao)(liao)板(ban)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)緊(jin)材(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao),防止(zhi)(zhi)凹(ao)模(mo)(mo)側(ce)的(de)(de)(de)材(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)向(xiang)上(shang)翹曲(qu),此時(shi),材(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)的(de)(de)(de)受(shou)(shou)力(li)(li)狀況(kuang)發生(sheng)(sheng)相應的(de)(de)(de)改(gai)變。隨卸料(liao)(liao)(liao)板(ban)對(dui)其壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)料(liao)(liao)(liao)力(li)(li)的(de)(de)(de)增加(jia),靠凸模(mo)(mo)側(ce)之材(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)受(shou)(shou)拉(la)伸(shen)(壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)縮(suo)力(li)(li)趨(qu)于減小),而凹(ao)模(mo)(mo)面上(shang)材(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)受(shou)(shou)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)縮(suo)(拉(la)伸(shen)力(li)(li)趨(qu)于減小)。沖(chong)(chong)(chong)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)翻(fan)(fan)轉即由于凹(ao)模(mo)(mo)面上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)材(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)受(shou)(shou)拉(la)伸(shen)而致(zhi)。所以沖(chong)(chong)(chong)裁(cai)(cai)時(shi),壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)住且壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)緊(jin)材(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)是(shi)防止(zhi)(zhi)沖(chong)(chong)(chong)件(jian)產(chan)生(sheng)(sheng)翻(fan)(fan)料(liao)(liao)(liao)、扭曲(qu)的(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)(zhong)點。折(zhe)彎(wan)時(shi)沖(chong)(chong)(chong)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)件(jian)產(chan)生(sheng)(sheng)翻(fan)(fan)料(liao)(liao)(liao)、扭曲(qu)的(de)(de)(de)原因(yin)及(ji)對(dui)策。 1沖(chong)(chong)(chong)裁(cai)(cai)時(shi)產(chan)生(sheng)(sheng)的(de)(de)(de)沖(chong)(chong)(chong)件(jian)毛(mao)邊所致(zhi)。需研修沖(chong)(chong)(chong)切刃(ren)口,并注意檢查沖(chong)(chong)(chong)裁(cai)(cai)間(jian)隙是(shi)否合理。 2沖(chong)(chong)(chong)裁(cai)(cai)時(shi)已產(chan)生(sheng)(sheng)沖(chong)(chong)(chong)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)翻(fan)(fan)料(liao)(liao)(liao)、扭曲(qu)變形(xing),導致(zhi)折(zhe)彎(wan)后(hou)成形(xing)不良(liang),需從沖(chong)(chong)(chong)裁(cai)(cai)下料(liao)(liao)(liao)工位著手(shou)解決。 3折(zhe)彎(wan)時(shi)沖(chong)(chong)(chong)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)件(jian)失穩(wen)所致(zhi)。主要針對(dui)U形(xing)及(ji)V形(xing)折(zhe)彎(wan)。此問題的(de)(de)(de)處(chu)理,對(dui)沖(chong)(chong)(chong)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)件(jian)進行折(zhe)彎(wan)前的(de)(de)(de)導位、折(zhe)彎(wan)過程中(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)導位,以及(ji)折(zhe)彎(wan)過程中(zhong)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)住材(cai)料(liao)(liao)(liao)防止(zhi)(zhi)沖(chong)(chong)(chong)壓(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)(ya)件(jian)在折(zhe)彎(wan)時(shi)產(chan)生(sheng)(sheng)滑(hua)移是(shi)解決問題的(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)(zhong)點。


二、五(wu)金沖壓件為什么會引(yin)起(qi)撕裂(lie)? 

 五金(jin)沖壓(ya)件常見的(de)撕(si)裂(lie)(lie)(lie)(lie)、歪(wai)斜形(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)式 中(zhong)(zhong)間(jian)護面(mian)支架(jia)沖壓(ya)工(gong)(gong)藝流程(cheng)為:落(luo)料沖孔(kong)--沖孔(kong)切(qie)口(kou)--翻邊成形(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)--切(qie)口(kou)--翻邊。中(zhong)(zhong)間(jian)護面(mian)支架(jia)成形(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)過(guo)程(cheng)中(zhong)(zhong)發生(sheng)撕(si)裂(lie)(lie)(lie)(lie)、歪(wai)斜的(de)形(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)式多種多樣,其撕(si)裂(lie)(lie)(lie)(lie)部位主要(yao)(yao)分布在制(zhi)件孔(kong)型(xing)處(chu)(chu)(chu),側(ce)壁拐角處(chu)(chu)(chu)R圓弧與(yu)壁頸交界(jie)處(chu)(chu)(chu)等,因(yin)(yin)沖壓(ya)成形(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)與(yu)生(sheng)產工(gong)(gong)藝條(tiao)件的(de)差異(yi),各(ge)斷(duan)裂(lie)(lie)(lie)(lie)部位所占的(de)比例不(bu)同。撕(si)裂(lie)(lie)(lie)(lie)可以是一(yi)次(ci)性(xing)成形(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)撕(si)裂(lie)(lie)(lie)(lie),也可以是由(you)于疲勞裂(lie)(lie)(lie)(lie)紋即(ji)隱形(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)裂(lie)(lie)(lie)(lie)紋發展引起的(de)撕(si)裂(lie)(lie)(lie)(lie)。    原因(yin)(yin)分析, 根據(ju)現場的(de)實際情況,通過(guo)檢(jian)查制(zhi)件撕(si)裂(lie)(lie)(lie)(lie)部位、斷(duan)口(kou)形(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)態及擠傷程(cheng)度,認為引起制(zhi)件撕(si)裂(lie)(lie)(lie)(lie)、歪(wai)斜行為主要(yao)(yao)體現在翻邊成形(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)工(gong)(gong)序,引起此工(gong)(gong)序現象發生(sheng)的(de)原因(yin)(yin)如下:    


1. 成(cheng)形工藝(yi)(yi)參(can)數執行(xing)不(bu)到位 ,在(zai)制件成(cheng)形過程(cheng)中,工藝(yi)(yi)要求(qiu)凹(ao)模、壓(ya)料(liao)芯以(yi)及兩(liang)者的制件必(bi)須緊密貼(tie)合在(zai)一起,在(zai)機床(chuang)滑塊下滑時(shi)壓(ya)迫(po)板料(liao)塑性變形而實現(xian)成(cheng)形。但現(xian)在(zai)由于(yu)壓(ya)制出的制件存在(zai)質(zhi)量不(bu)穩(wen)定等(deng)缺點(dian),就說明機床(chuang)壓(ya)力(li)在(zai)生產


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